To understand what is the function of the immune system, we need to learn about the different types of cells and proteins in the body. Antigens are proteins found on the surface of a germ or fungus. Antigens attach to special receptors on the surface of immune cells. Once attached, these molecules trigger a series of events in the body. The body then stores information about these germs to recognize them when they are re-contacted later.
All immune system cells are produced in the bone marrow, including the B and T cells. The bone marrow is the location where all immune cells begin their development from primitive stem cells. The thymus instructs immature lymphocytes to mature into T-lymphocytes. The bone marrow is the source of all immune system cells, including the cytotoxic T-cells that attack foreign substances. The lymph nodes contain lymphocytes and other immune system cells.
In addition to protecting the body from foreign substances, the immune system is responsible for discriminating healthy tissues from foreign ones. Foreign material can range from microorganisms to pollen to a kidney transplant. Patients with certain immunodeficiency disorders may have problems discriminating between these materials and their own body. These patients may also be prone to autoimmune diseases and increased susceptibility to infections. However, in most cases, there is no obvious cause for this type of immune system disorder.
Some of the diseases that affect the immune system are primary immunodeficiency disorders. These disorders impair the body’s ability to detect and eliminate foreign materials, which can lead to infections, autoimmune diseases, and allergic reactions. It is also important to know that there is no definite cure for these diseases. However, the right treatment for these patients is important and can be beneficial to their overall health. There are a number of ways to help the body repair itself.
The body has several types of white blood cells. White blood cells, also known as B-cells, play a significant role in defending the body from pathogens. B-cells produce antibodies that target bacteria and toxins. In the case of allergy and certain types of bacteria, the B-cells produce antibodies to attack the foreign substance. The killer T-cells then destroy these harmful substances. Other cells, including natural killer cells and helper T-cells, help these white blood cells fight off the microbes.
A small organ located beneath the breastbone is the thymus. It is a type of lymph gland that triggers the production of antibodies. Unfortunately, some of these antibodies may also lead to muscle weakness. However, in adults, the thymus can be too active, causing the muscles to weaken. A healthy immune system will balance these parts and prevent many of the illnesses associated with diseases. However, the body should still check for viruses or bacterial infections.
The innate immune response promotes clearance of dead cells and foreign substances from the body. The innate immune system is divided into neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells. It contains several major immune system proteins, including antibodies and cytokines, which serve as the immune system’s messengers. These proteins also help the different cells communicate with each other, enabling the immune system to fight off harmful microbes.